Table of Contents
- 1 Where does Tc-99m come from?
- 2 How is technetium-99m used in nuclear medicine?
- 3 How is technetium-99m eliminated from the body?
- 4 How was technetium 99m developed?
- 5 What is produced in nuclear fission?
- 6 What happens in a technetium-99m generator?
- 7 How is Tc-99m produced in nuclear medicine?
- 8 Why is technetium the most commonly used radioisotope?
Where does Tc-99m come from?
Technetium-99 is produced during nuclear reactor operation, and is a byproduct of nuclear weapons explosions. Technetium-99 can be found as a component of nuclear waste. Technetium-99m is a short-lived form of Tc-99 that is used as a medical diagnostic tool.
How do nuclear reactors produce radioisotopes?
Radioisotopes are used in various fields, including nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Radioisotope production in reactors is based on neutron capture in a target material, either by activation or generation of radioisotopes from fission of the target material by bombardment with thermal neutrons.
How is technetium-99m used in nuclear medicine?
Technetium (Tc-99m) is an isotope commonly used in a number of medical diagnostic imaging scans. Tc99m is used as a radioactive tracer for nuclear medicine; which is a form of medical imaging that assesses how particular parts of our body are working or functioning.
How a technetium generator produces technetium-99m?
Technetium-99m is produced relatively inexpensively using a generator. Molybdenum-99 suspended on an alumina column decays (t½ = 66 h) to form technetium-99m. The technetium-99m half-life of 6 h allows time for preparation of the radiotracer, distribution and patient imaging.
How is technetium-99m eliminated from the body?
Let me explain: the activity of the 99Tc produced is 462.5 MBq since half of the material is excreted in the urine and half (462.5 MBq) is incorporated in the skeleton.
How is technetium 99m used in bone imaging?
Technetium-99m MDP Tc-99m emits 140 keV gamma rays upon decay, and these gamma rays are detected by nuclear gamma cameras to allow localizing where the Tc-99m travels within the body. For imaging bone metabolism, the radionuclide is usually attached to medronic acid (methylene diphosphonate).
How was technetium 99m developed?
Technetium-99m was discovered as a product of cyclotron bombardment of molybdenum. This procedure produced molybdenum-99, a radionuclide with a longer half-life (2.75 days), which decays to 99mTc.
How radioisotopes are produced for radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear research reactors?
Since many therapeutic radioisotopes are characterized by beta decay, they are often directly produced in a nuclear reactor, since neutron capture by the target nuclide forms an radioactive or unstable product which decays by beta emission. Key examples include holmium-166, lutetium-177 and rhenium-188.
What is produced in nuclear fission?
Nuclear fission is a reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into two or more smaller nuclei. The fission process often produces gamma photons, and releases a very large amount of energy even by the energetic standards of radioactive decay.
How is technetium-99m used in bone imaging?
What happens in a technetium-99m generator?
Tc-99m is radioactive because one or more of the protons and neutrons in its nucleus is in an excited state. Tc-99m decays into Tc-99 with a half-life of six hours and this makes it particularly well suited to use in the body: after one day (four half-lives) only 6.3\% of the initial Tc-99m remains.
How is technetium-99m produced?
Technetium-99m is artificially produced by bombarding Molybdenum (98Mo) with neutrons. Molybdenum-99 is then produced. This then undergoes a Beta decay with a half life of 66 hours to produce Technetium. The production of Technetium-99m, a short lived radioisotope is then able to be permitted for use in 80\% of nuclear medicine procedures.
How is Tc-99m produced in nuclear medicine?
5\% of nuclear medicine procedures use reactor-produced isotopes other than Tc-99m. A large majority of Tc-99m is produced in nuclear research reactors. More precisely, the reactors produce Tc-99m’s longer-lived parent isotope molybdenum-99 (half life 66 hours) with neutron bombardment of enriched uranium targets.
What is the half life of technetium generator?
Technetium generators, which contain the radioisotope, are supplied to hospitals from the nuclear reactor where the isotopes are made. They contain Molybdenum-99, with a half-life of 66 hours, which progressively decays to technetium-99.
Why is technetium the most commonly used radioisotope?
It is known as the most commonly used medical radioisotope because of its use in tens of millions of medical procedures annually. Technetium-99m is produced by bombarding Molybdenum (98Mo) with neutrons. Molybdenum-99 is then produced. This then undergoes a Beta decay with a half life of 66 hours to produce Technetium.